HOA Legal Resources

North Carolina Case Law

California Law:  http://leginfo.legislature.ca.gov/faces/codes.xhtml

Attorney Client Privilege
  • calbar.ca.gov/calbar/pdfs/ethics/2002_Compendium_Index.pdf
  •  The Attorney-Client Privilege The Attorney-Client Privilege. Office of General Counsel. The California State University ... In California, the Supreme Court has laid out a number of "basic ..www.calstate.edu/gc/Docs/Attorney-Client_Privilege.doc
Oak Tree removal in California
Business judgment rule
George K. Staropoli Website & selected material
Cohen v. Kite Hill,142 Cal App 3d 642 (1983) (A homeowners association board is in effect “a quasi-government entity paralleling in almost every case the powers, duties, and responsibilities of a municipal government.”)
Gerber v. Long Boat Harbour, 757 F Supp. 1339 (M.D. Fla. 1991) (court enforcement of private agreements in condo declarations is a state action; flag; free speech).
Hudgens v. NLRB 424 US 507 (1976) (functions of a municipality, citing Marsh; shopping center)
Marsh V. Alabama, 326 US 501 (1946) (company town and public functions)
Shelly v. Kraemer 334 US 1 (prohibitive state actions by use of judicial enforcement as state was fully aware of the illegal use of the courts; judicial enforcement harms constitutional rights)
Williamson v. Lee Optical, 348 US 483, (1954) (rational basis for scrutiny)
Damon v. Ocean Hills Journalism Club,  85 Cal. App. 4th 468; (2000) (quasi-government; board meetings public forums similar to government body;defamation)
Laguna Publishing Co. v. Golden Rain Found. of Laguna Hills, 131 Cal. App. 3d 182 (1982) (HOA has attributes that “in many ways approximate a municipality . . . close to a characterization as a company town.”)
Surfside 84 v. Mullen Ct. of Special Appeals of Maryland, No. 495 (September 1984) (state action; procedural due process; lack of notice; CAI Reporter).
Brock v. Watergate 502 So. 2d 1380 (Fla. 4 Dist. App. (1987)( public functiuons test; close nexus criteria; HOA lacks character of a company town)
Committee for a Better Twin Rivers v. Twin Rivers, 929 A.2d 1060 (NJ 2007) (HOA not state actor per NJ Scmidt version of Marsh; Not US but NJ Const. case).
Indian Lake v. Director of Revenue, 813 SW 2d 305 (not civic organization)
Midlake v. Cappuccio, 673 A 2d 340, Pa. Super. (1996) (condo is a pvt organization, not muni govt; not a company town)
Riley v. Stoves, 526 P.2d 747, Ariz. App. Div. 2 (1974) (state action; classification; enforce age restrictions;”court to enforce constitutional commands”; restriction was a permissible government interest).
 S.O.C. v. Mirage Casino-Hotel, 43 P 3rd 243 (Nev. 2001) (state action; public functions; delegating functions to private persons; commerical advertising on private property).
Terre Du Lac Ass’n, Inc. v. Terre Du Lac, Inc., 737 S.W.2d 206 (Mo. App. 1987). (quasi govt) (how a homeowner’s association operates as a “quasi-governmental entity,” not authority for the concept that an association’s “quasi-governmental” actions are state actions;).
Westphal v. Lake Lotawana, 95 SW 3d 144 (Mo. App. 2003) (no support for “close nexus” state action).
The above cases in bold are color coded. Red is adverse to constitutional protections; Blue is favorable; black in neutral.
There are 3 case against and 4 cases in favor. Two were not dispositive. The “against” cases were all based on a “public functions” test.
The non-bold cases concern related issues not involving an HOA/condo, such as state action, public functions, or mini/quasi governments.
The above findings are not exhaustive and reflect the analysis of some 153 HOA/condo , state action cases on a federal and state level.

California Law

  Misc Links: School Law |  http://www.nsba.org/SchoolLaw

6250.  In enacting this chapter, the Legislature, mindful of the right of individuals to privacy, finds and declares that access to information concerning the conduct of the people's business is a fundamental and necessary right of every person in this state.  According to case law, the CZ Master Association is a state actor.
6253.1.  (a) When a member of the public requests to inspect a public record or obtain a copy of a public record, the public agency, in order to assist the member of the public make a focused and effective request that reasonably describes an identifiable record or records, shall do all of the following, to the extent reasonable under the circumstances:
   (1) Assist the member of the public to identify records and information that are responsive to the request or to the purpose of the request, if stated.
   (2) Describe the information technology and physical location in which the records exist.
   (3) Provide suggestions for overcoming any practical basis for denying access to the records or information sought.
   (b) The requirements of paragraph (1) of subdivision (a) shall be deemed to have been satisfied if the public agency is unable toidentify the requested information after making a reasonable effort
to elicit additional clarifying information from the requester that will help identify the record or records.
   (c) The requirements of subdivision (a) are in addition to any action required of a public agency by Section 6253.
   (d) This section shall not apply to a request for public records if any of the following applies:
   (1) The public agency makes available the requested records pursuant to Section 6253.
   (2) The public agency determines that the request should be denied and bases that determination solely on an exemption listed in Section 6254.
   (3) The public agency makes available an index of its records.


Selected California Codes

  California Civil Code
Davis-Stirling Common Interest Development Act (§1350-1374 C.C.)
Restraint on Alienation (prohibition) (§711 C.C)
Real Estate signs and displays (§712-713 C.C.)
Disclosure requirements on transfer of real property (§1102-1102.5 and §1104-1134)

California Corporations Code
Non-profit Mutual Benefit Corporations Purposes (§7110-7111 Corp C.)
Forming (§7120-7122 Corp C.)
Articles, requirements (§7130-7135 Corp C.)
Powers (§7140-7142 Corp C.)
Bylaws (§7150-7153 Corp C.)
Location and Inspection of Articles and Bylaws (§7160 Corp C.)

Corporate Duties and Responsibilities under the California Nonprofit Corporation Law (§7210-7215 Corp C.)

Selection, Removal, and Resignation of Directors (§7220-7225 Corp C.)

Standards of Conduct (§7230-7238 Corp C.)

Issuance of Memberships (§7312 Corp C.)

Meetings and Voting (§7510-7516 Corp C.)

Additional Provisions Relating to Election of Directors (§7520-7527 Corp C.)

Voting of Memberships (§7610-7616 Corp C.)

Records, Reports, and Rights of Inspection (§8310-8313 Corp C.)

Required Records, Reports to Directors and Members (§8320 Corp C.)
Rights of Inspection (§8330-8338 Corp C.)

California Code of Civil Procedure
Standing of an Owners' Association to Sue (§374 C.C.P.)

Statutes of Limitation (§337-339.5 C.C.P.)

Small Claims Court (§116.110-, §116.210-, §116.310-, §116.410-, §116.510-, §116.610-, §116.710-, §116.810-, §116.910- C.C.P.)

California Health & Safety Code
Building Records (§19850-19851 H.S.C.)
Asbestos Disclosure (§25915.2-25915.5 H.S.C.)

California Vehicle Code
Removing (Towing) Vehicles (§22658-22658.2 V.C.)

California Law 

California Law consists of 29 codes, covering various subject areas, the State Constitution and Statutes

To display the Table of Contents for a code, select a code and click on Search - this takes you to the Official California Legislative Information webpage

Business and Professions Code Civil Code
Code of Civil Procedure Commercial Code
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Fish and Game Code Food and Agricultural Code
Government Code Harbors and Navigation Code
Health and Safety Code Insurance Code
Labor Code Military and Veterans Code
Penal Code Probate Code
Public Contract Code Public Resources Code
Public Utilities Code Revenue and Taxation Code
Streets and Highways Code Unemployment Insurance Code
Vehicle Code Water Code
Welfare and Institutions Code All

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New California Law Website - 2012

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